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你可知沙面岛上藏着三个中国“第一”?The olden days of Shamian Island

2020/9/15 20:02:06 来源:silkroadpost丝路邮报 浏览:

沙面,几乎在每一位到广州的旅行者的必打卡清单上。


Shamian Island, or Shameen Island, which barely covers a third of a square kilometer but houses an array of European-style buildings, has been put on the map for many holidaymakers. On Mafengwo, a travel service and social networking platform, over 8,100 comments regarding Shamian have been posted with pictures up to this month.

这个面积仅有0.3平方公里的城中小岛,遍布着别于城中主流建筑风格的欧式楼房和绿意盎然的街道,清新脱俗,深受“文艺青年”们的喜爱。每天来沙面岛打卡的旅客,数不胜数。在旅游网站“马蜂窝”输入“沙面”,可以看到关于它的评论超过8100条(截至2020年9月)。


图片来源:吃喝玩乐IN广州

那么,让沙面如此吸睛的“欧洲范儿”是怎么来的?这其中有着怎样的故事?它在历史上曾扮演什么角色?让我们一起来了解这座迷你岛屿的“前世”吧。


How come such a Chinese block ends up boasting so many western-style architectures? What kind of role has it been playing historically? Let’s probe into the past days of the islet.


一应俱全的生活社区

A well-equipped community


100多年前,沙面是与沙基(即由街市组成的片区)相连的沙洲,叫拾翠洲。1856年,英法联军向中国发动了第二次鸦片战争,英法联军攻占广州后,逼迫广东衙门辟沙面为租界,并挖沟使它与沙基分开,在四周筑砌花岗石,使它成为了一个真正的小岛。


Previously known as Shicuizhou, Shamian Island was originally a sandbank connecting an area of street markets called Shaji. In 1856, Britain and French armies attacked and occupied Canton (Guangzhou today). The then government was forced to make concessions on Shamian, making it a foreign settlement and an isolated island separated from Shaji by an artificial river with granite piled around.


沙面被划为租界之后,陆续兴建起一百五十多座欧洲风格建筑,有领事馆、教堂、银行、邮局、电报局、商行、医院、酒店。


Since then, more than 150 European-style buildings rose straight from the ground, serving different purposes as consulates, churches, banks, postal offices, telegraph offices, commercial firms, hospitals and hotels.

约摄于1894年的沙面基督堂。图片来自曾任粤海关税务司的杜德维(英文名:Edward Bangs Drew)的家庭相册。

另外还有俱乐部、酒吧、网球场和游泳场等,其中,沙面室内游泳场始建于1887年,沙面网球场建于1905年,在中国都是首开先河。它们于2013年被合并为广州市沙面体育俱乐部。


Also rising up from the ground were clubs, bars and a tennis court built in 1887 as well as an indoor swimming pool which came into use in 1905. There were neither tennis courts nor swimming pools in China before. In 2013, the tennis court and the swimming pool were merged into the Shamian Sports Club of Guangzhou.

沙面草地网球场,网球手和观众的合影,约摄于1803年,杜德维家庭相册。图片来源:布里斯托大学中国老照片项目 Lawn tennis players and spectators in 1893, Image courtesy of Drew, Edward Bangs collection, Harvard-Yenching Library, USA and Historical Photographs of China, University of Bristol (www.hpcbristol.net).


上世纪40年代的沙面网球场,美国《生活》杂志 A photo of the tennis court on Shamian Island published b

有着130多年历史的沙面游泳场 The indoor swimming pool of Shamian enjoys a history of over 130 years.

毗邻沙面的人工河(今沙基涌)上同样热闹。


The artificial river neighbouring Shamian(today's Shji Creek) also was buzzing with vitality.


曾是十三行某洋行合伙人的美国人威廉·亨特在《旧中国杂记》里这样形容:“可以看到各式各样大大小小的船艇在不停地来往,几乎把整个江面都盖满了……这些小艇中十有九只是整个家庭的唯一住所,全家人从不在岸上落脚。这些人里面不仅有生意人、工匠、木匠、鞋匠,以及裁缝,卖故衣、卖食品、卖饰物的,而且还有算命先生、应急郎中,也许还有‘正规的’开业医生、剃头匠、爆玉米花的和专门替人洗头的。总而言之,这些浮家泛宅的居民,就像陆上的居民一样,各行各业,干什么的都有。”


According to Bits of Old China written by William C. Hunter, boat dwellers from all walks of life scattered on the river, including businessmen, craftsmen, tailors, fortune-tellers and herbalists who hardly left their "floating homes".

广州沙面沙基涌上的疍民,约摄于1893年,杜德维家庭相册。图片来源:布里斯托大学中国老照片项目 Boat dwel

至于沙面岛上的住户,则多是各国领事馆、银行、洋行的人员以及外籍的税务官和传教士。


Only foreigners of high status such as clerks of consulates, employees of banks and firms and tax officers as well as missionaries were entitled to live on the island.


被外企包围的小岛

A home to foreign companies


沙面成为租界以后,先后有九家银行、四十多家洋行和企业,在这里设立区行、分行、支行、办事处等,如吻嗜氏洋行(即美最时公司)、三达火油公司(即美孚公司)、德士古火油公司,英资的香港汇丰银行、渣打银行等。所谓的火油,就是煤油。


After Shamian became the Britain and French concessions, nine banks and over forty firms and companies chose to establish branches there, including Melchers&Co., Standard oil Co., the TeXaco oil Co., Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Corporation Limited (HSBC), and Standard Chartered.

1915年发大水时的汇丰银行。图片来源:布里斯托大学中国老照片项目 Hongkong & Shanghai Bank during the f


美孚公司 Standard Oil Co.


太古洋行,约摄于1911-1912年。图片来源:布里斯托大学中国老照片项目 Butterfield and Swire office, 1911


位于沙面大街59号的一栋建筑呈回字形布局,四边皆有外廊,为英国维多利亚式风格,它是亚细亚火油公司旧址——亚细亚火油公司便是著名的壳牌石油公司的子公司。壳牌煤油从光绪二十年(1894)开始进军广州,在沙面设立分支机构。


One of the buildings, situated at No. 59 Shamian Street, was designed into a rectangular shape with lanais at all sides. In typical Victorian style, the building used to house the Asiatic Petroleum Company, one of the subsidiaries of Royal Dutch Shell, who entered the Cantonese market by establishing its branch on Shamian in the 20th year of Emperor Guangxu's reign in the Qing Dynasty (1894).


亚细亚火油公司的原址现在伫立着一栋大楼 A building has occupied the old site of Asiatic Petroleum Com


租界时期的亚细亚火油公司 Asiatic Petroleum Company in the period of concession


微妙的“中外”关系

Delicate Sino-foreign relation 


当时,中国人对待外国人和“洋货”的心理十分复杂。一方面,普通百姓对“洋人”们多少抱有畏惧心理;另一方面,他们也会“反击”。


Chinese commoners at that time held a complicated attitude toward foreigners and the goods they sold. For one thing, the westerners were somewhat intimidating to them, for another, they didn't see them as superiors and sometimes "fought back".

乘肩舆(即轿子)的外国人 A western lady sitting on a sedan chair


沙面英格兰桥(今沙面西桥)处站在围栏外围观的广州人,1900年。图片来源:布里斯托大学中国老照片项目 Can

根据《广州城坊志》记载,道光十一年(1831),在十三行新豆栏街旁有一个码头,专门给洋商上货、卸货用的。有一年,广东巡抚朱桂桢听说海关署有一座西洋的自鸣钟 ,非常好奇,邀上海关监督前去观赏,到海关后见到码头,问洋商这是什么,洋商回答:“是鬼子码头。”巡抚勃然大怒说:“内地怎可以有鬼子码头!”下令立即拆毁。工人马上进场,把码头夷为平地。


According to the Records on Urban Construction of Guangzhou (《广州城坊志》) , in the 11th year of Emperor Daoguang's reign in the Qing Dynasty(1831), there was a wharf beside Xindoulan Street of the Thirteen Hongs outside Shamian Island for foreign merchants to handle cargoes.


When Zhu Guizhen, the "Xunfu"(equivalent to today's governor) of Guangdong, stumbled on such a foreign wharf on his tour to the Customs Administration, he found it intolerable to have such a wharf exclusive to foreign merchants and commanded workers to dismantle it immediately. The wharf was then razed to the ground.


海关“暗道”

A secret passage for cargoes


清朝时期的沙面,和粤海关有着紧密联系,除了设有粤海关洋员、华员俱乐部和高级官员住宅楼,还为货物的进出口提供了“暗道”。


Shamian was closely related to the Canton Customs in the Qing Dynasty, as it had houses and mansions specially built for foreign crews and senior officials as well as secret passages for smuggled goods.


当时,洋船进口,货物入仓,海关查验,不过是个形式,买办们经常是以多报少的,这样一来,流入市场的“老鼠货”包括鸦片、吗啡、军火等等,无不应有尽有。


The relatively-isolated island also provided a secret passage for the import and export of cargoes. Under the shield of the customs, it was quite common for compradors to conceal some of the goods, including illegal items like opium and morphine.


在走私商品的同时,洋商们也从中国大量采购生丝、茶叶、木材、桐油、钨矿砂、草席、猪鬃毛等货品出口。


Meanwhile western merchants were acquiesced to smuggle commodities while exporting Chinese goods like raw silk, tea, timber, straw mat and bristle.

时任粤海关税务司的杜德维及家人位于沙面的住所,摄于1893年。图片来源:布里斯托大学中国老照片项目 House

西方国家不但将军火卖给军阀,而且也卖给“大天二”(土匪),因此,在军阀混战、盗匪如毛的旧中国,外国军火竟成为一种经常性、长期性的大宗进口物资。


Some westerners even sold munitions to warlords and bandits to maximize their profit without bottom line, making foreign munitions a sort of "regular" imported bulk cargoes.


广州西餐的摇篮

Cradle of western cuisine in

Guangzhou


在广州的饮食业上,沙面也有其独特的位置:它是西餐在广州的发源地。很多人都知道,太平馆是中国人开的第一家西餐馆,而它的创始人徐老高,原本就在沙面旗昌洋行当厨师,并因此学会了西菜烹调技术。


Apart from inflows and outflows of goods, Shamian also witnessed the debut of western cuisine in Guangzhou. Xu Laogao, the first Chinese to own a western-style restaurant in Guangzhou, got his cooking skills regarding western food from his experience as a chef in Russell & Co. located in Shamian.

根据上世纪初《时事画报》的图文报道,西式餐饮已成为上流社会追逐的时尚。According to Shishi huabao (Il

到上世纪30年代,沙面的西餐业一枝独秀,汇聚了东桥、玫瑰、经济、域多利等多家西餐厅,这种密度在当年是很罕见的。在西餐中,牛扒算是低档菜,葡国鸡则算高档菜。顾客大多是沙面的洋人和洋行买办、职员。

The 1930s had seen western-style restaurants sprouting like mushrooms in Shamian, among which steak was considered low-grade while Portuguese chicken was deemed high-class. Most customers were foreigners, compradors and office clerks working in firms and institutions in Shamian.

1997年底,国务院将沙面列为国家级文物保护区,其中有53栋建筑被列为全国重点文物保护单位;随后,广州市政府对沙面岛上80多幢文物建筑实行全面保护,重点修缮整理了其中10多幢。今天的沙面岛,俨然已成为一座风景优美的西式建筑大观园,而当年的往事也并不如烟,隐匿于一座座西式楼房里,等待人们去发现。

Shamian Island was listed as one of state protected historic areas in 1997, and fifty-three of its buildings were elected as key historical sites under state protection. Soon afterwards the municipal government of Guangzhou put some eighty buildings under full protection and repaired over ten of them in particular. The island is now a showplace occupied by western-style architectures which tell stories of olden days.


Author:Liuliu

Editor:Yuan

Source:英国布里斯托大学中国老照片项目(www.hpcbristol.net)、叶曙明《历史现场》(The on-site history by Ye Shuming)、王云泉《广州租界地区的来龙去脉》(The context of the concession area in Guangzhou by Wang Yunquan)

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